The first public gardens were built by the Spanish Crown in the 16th century, in Europe and the Americas. The need to create spaces for leisure and meeting. And the human need to coexist with nature and the capacity (sometimes with negative connotations) to modify our environment to adapt it to our needs has generated around the world. Different styles of garden and landscapes related to cultures and adaptations to the different climates and species of the planet.
According to the Royal Spanish Academy, we can, therefore, define the study or design of the natural environment, especially parks and gardens, such as landscaping. The Landscaper plans and designs urban and rural landscapes in time and space. The basis of this is on the natural characteristics and historical and cultural values of the place. To achieve this end, appropriate techniques and natural and artificial materials are used. Guidance for this is by aesthetic, functional, scientific and planning principles.
The styles of gardens are as many as there are cultures and places in the world, but in a very general way we can talk about:
Style marked by the arid climate that generates environments of great beauty based on materials typical of the region such as stones and vegetation resistant to drought. Light colored stone walls, moving water, and colorful flowers. All with a minimalist touch that represents the most typical of the Spanish, French and Italian gardens of Tuscany.
They are gardens of great extensions where the control of the hand of the man is tangible in the linear ones of trimmed hedges and the perfectly mowed lawn. Also, they are geometric gardens of straight lines, with pastel colors and a multitude of shades of green. The trails are of sand or gravel and in them are classic sculptures or clay pots. They are gardens with special splendor in the autumnal season. A good example of them is French or English gardens.
They are gardens typical of the most exotic areas of the planet where climatic conditions of constant temperature and humidity allow their development. The protagonists are tropical and exotic species as well as abundant vegetation. The type of characteristic plants has particularly large leaves and sparse flowers that need little attention.
These gardens do not require excessive care because they pretend to simulate the foliage and disorder of jungle areas. Only the species should undergo pruning when they bother; if it is not the case, they will be allowed to grow naturally. Outside of its environment, it is recommended to build ponds or waterfalls with rocks typical of the area, taking advantage of or creating slopes that provide the level of environmental humidity that their plant diversity.
Of Chinese origin supposes a study of the energies transmitted between nature and man. These are small, relaxing, balanced spaces with circular or wave shapes. The art of Feng Shui, whose meaning is “wind and water,” flees from the excess of details and ostentation, using elements of composition such as rocks, plants, sculptures, walls, pots, elements with water and ornaments.
They are one of the most famous architectural elements of humanity. The design and the elements that compose it have analysis from a geographical or topographic point of view. Thus, the landscape of the garden represents an archipelago of islands located mostly around the Seto Inland Sea. The Japanese garden also represents the cosmos, a place of central importance in the Shinto religion. A great void (equivalent to the sea); full of celestial bodies (islands).
The rocks are the stars of these gardens. They also represent the mountains or the islands, scattered in a void that mimics the sea. The most used are those of volcanic origin, mainly those of basalt.
It is a garden to walk, see and hear, and expresses the longing for paradise. It is a garden that fascinates for its sensitivity, its intimate character and the harmony of its parts. Its characteristic elements are:
- Division of private spaces: when the dimensions of space allow it, it should be divided into rooms communicated through narrow passages with arches, bars, lattices or other elements that allow us to glimpse the next room providing mystery and sensation of discovery.
- Water always present: the water passes through different parts of the garden, even entering the rooms and providing freshness, sound and movement.
- Structural elements: paved walks, walls, piles, arches, fountains …, generally of stone or covered with tiles of varied designs and marked Arab character.
- Mediterranean plants arranged in walks and pots and that support the drought well. The cypress and the orange trees are the most characteristic trees.
Once you know the most important types of gardens now, you just have to decide which one you like the most and which one suits your space needs;). If you need advice, you already know how to contact us.